Child Care and Early Education Research Connections

Skip to main content

Early childhood care arrangements: Choices and costs


Newly released data from the 2016 Early Childhood Program Participation survey (ECPP), a part of the National Household Education Surveys (NHES) Program, provide new insights about children’s participation in nonparental care arrangements, including relative care, nonrelative care, and center-based care arrangements. This spotlight uses ECPP survey data to explore whether children’s parents report that there are good choices for child care or early childhood programs (also referred to as “child care” in this indicator) where they live; how much difficulty they have finding the type of child care they want for their children; what the primary reason is for the difficulty finding child care; and what the average out-of-pocket costs are for child care arrangements. Findings are presented overall, as well as by children’s age, race/ethnicity, household income, and geographic locale (urban, suburban, town, or rural). (author abstract)

Resource Type:
Interactive Tools
United States

Related resources include summaries, versions, measures (instruments), or other resources in which the current document plays a part. Research products funded by the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation are related to their project records.

- You May Also Like

These resources share similarities with the current selection.

Early care and education usage and households' out-of-pocket costs: Tabulations from the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE)

Reports & Papers

National Household Education Survey: Early Childhood Program Participation Questionnaire


2019 National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE): Household Questionnaire

Release: 'v1.36.0' | Built: 2023-09-22 13:54:40 EDT