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The Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Revised (HTKS-R): Development and psychometric properties of a revision to reduce floor effects


Measures of self-regulation may not capture adequate variability in children with low levels of self-regulation. This can limit a measure's ability to accurately demonstrate relations with other variables. The present study addressed this issue with a revised version of the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task (HTKS-R), which includes a new downward extension with reduced task demands. Preschool children (N = 180; 53% Female) enrolled in Head Start programs were tested with the HTKS-R and other self-regulation tasks at 4 time points between fall of preschool and spring of kindergarten. Results demonstrated a substantial increase in variability in children's performance on the HTKS-R compared to prior versions of the task during the fall of preschool, and significant increases in the relation between the HTKS-R and other measures of self-regulation at all 4 time points. Additionally, item factor analyses revealed that the new downward extension captured the same underlying construct as the rest of the measure and that a 1 factor solution was optimal. Together, these findings illustrate that the HTKS-R improves upon prior versions of the task increasing its utility for researchers and practitioners. (author abstract)

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Reports & Papers
United States

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