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The building blocks of mathematics for infants and toddlers: An annotated bibliography for course developers

This document presents research on the mathematical competence of infants and toddlers. We organize it in five major sections. We begin by describing our methodology. Then the research is presented in five domains: spatial relationships, number sense, problem solving and prediction, the role of caregivers (parents and providers), and integrating math across the day. Methodology We conceptualized mathematics for infants and toddlers by looking at the commonly held standards for this age group. In most state standards, the foundations or building blocks of mathematics are found within a "Cognitive Development" domain. Most states include the topics of Spatial Relationships and Number Sense within this domain. Indicators within these topics generally align with the Mathematics and Problem Solving domains that are more commonly used in early childhood (birth to five years) and throughout K-12. Thus, our annotated bibliography is organized primarily around the topics of Spatial Relationships and Number Sense. We also include articles pertaining to Patterning because it is an important general mathematical process, the subject of multiple studies, and a topic in many curricula. Finally, after reviewing all articles, additional categories were added pertaining to the impact of caregivers (parents, providers/teachers) on young children's math development, and integrating math throughout the day. (author abstract)
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