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Montessori, Waldorf, and Reggio Emilia: A comparative analysis of alternative models of early childhood education

Montessori, Waldorf, and Reggio Emilia education remain three of the most popular models for alternative early childhood education. Each of these approaches has developed globally, with a rich history of supporting children’s educational freedom. This narrative analysis provides a means for early childhood educators and scholars to understand the aims, philosophical and theoretical frameworks, historical development, benefits, and challenges in these models and their methods of practice. As early childhood education evolves with technology and as re-conceptualizations about early education occur, an understanding of these alternatives to traditional education models is important. While adaptive options of these models may emerge in education systems across national contexts, this review allows educators to consider their applications and cultural appropriateness in specific local and community contexts. (author abstract)
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