Child Care and Early Education Research Connections

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The child care & early education glossary defines terms used to describe aspects of child care and early education practice and policy; the research glossary defines terms used in conducting social science and policy research, for example those describing methods, measurements, statistical procedures, and other aspects of research.

Parent Choice
Refers to families' ability to access Child Care Arrangements of their choosing. The term is often used to refer to the CCDF stipulation that parents receiving Subsidies should be able to use all legal forms of care, even if a form of child care would be otherwise unregulated by the state.
Parent Involvement
Refers to active parent/family participation in a child’s care and education. To increase Parent Involvement, child care providers will typically identify projects, needs, and goals and let parents know how they can contribute. Parental involvement is often measured by metrics related to attendance at school meetings, events and parent-teacher conferences; or by volunteering or serving on a school committee. See related: Family Engagement.
Parenting Education
Instruction or information directed toward parents and families to increase effective parenting skills.
Part B of the IDEA
A section of the IDEA that lays out the educational and funding guidelines and requirements for children with disabilities from 3-21 years of age. Part B references requirements related to the Individualized Education Program (IEP).
Part C of the IDEA
A section of the IDEA that lays out the educational and funding guidelines and requirements for children with disabilities from birth through two years of age. Part C references requirements related to the Individualized Family Services Plans (IFSP) and Early Intervention services.
Peer-to-Peer Technical Assistance/TA
A form of Professional Development in which early care and education professionals work together, often with supervision from a professional instructor, to improve their caregiving and educational practices.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA)
Federal legislation that was designed to move adults quickly and permanently into the workforce, promote family stability, and allocate greater flexibility to states in designing public-assistance programs. Signed in 1996, the Act instituted Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and supplanted the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training program (JOBS).
Voluntary, intrinsically motivated activities commonly associated with pleasure and enjoyment, not for the purpose of meeting specific learning outcomes. Through play, young children engage and interact in the world around them, developing new Competencies across Developmental Domains. Types of play include dramatic/fantasy play, rough and tumble, and parallel and cooperative play, among others.
Pre-Kindergarten (Pre-K)
Programs designed for three and four year olds that focus on School Readiness. Though sometimes used interchangeably with “Preschool” and "Nursery School," Pre-K programs are typically government funded and stipulate compliance with quality and accountability standards that exceed regulatory requirements for other types of early learning settings (e.g., by requiring specific advanced qualifications for teachers). Pre-K programs are commonly operated in conjunction with public school districts, but also exist in various early education settings. See related: Mixed Delivery Systems.
Pre-Service Education/Training
The education, training and/or professional experiences that a child care staff member may undergo prior to assuming a particular role or position within a child care program.
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