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Increases in out-of-pocket child care costs: 1995 to 2016


The child care market experienced considerable change between 1995 and 2016. This brief documents changes in the out-of-pocket costs for families with children under age five. Key findings include: Children of all income levels were less likely to be in paid care arrangements than to receive care only from their parents; Children under age five were less likely to participate in paid family child care and more likely to receive care in center programs and unpaid relative care arrangements; Hourly early care and education (ECE) payments per child increased 86 percent; All major types of care became more expensive; The increases in ECE payments were largest for children in upper-income families. (author abstract)

Resource Type:
Reports & Papers
United States

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