Child Care and Early Education Research Connections

Skip to main content

Living with a grandparent and parent in early childhood: Associations with school readiness and differences by demographic characteristics

Despite the increasing prevalence of 3-generation family households (grandparent, parent, child), relatively little research has studied these households during early childhood. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort (N = [approximately] 6,550), this study investigated the associations between 3-generation coresidence in early childhood and school readiness, and how the associations differed by maternal age, race/ethnicity, nativity, relationship status, and poverty. For the full sample of children, no associations between 3-generation coresidence and school readiness were found. Analyses by demographic characteristics found that race/ethnicity and nativity moderated the associations, whereas maternal age, relationship status, and poverty did not. The study found that 3-generation coresidence was associated with lower levels of expressive language for White, Asian, and Black children but more expressive language for Hispanic children. Coresidence was also associated with more externalizing behavior for White and American Indian/Alaskan Native children but less externalizing behavior for Hispanic and Black children. Analyses by maternal nativity found that for children of immigrant mothers, 3-generation coresidence was associated with more expressive language and less externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Interactions between race/ethnicity and nativity found that the positive associations for Hispanic children were concentrated among children of immigrant parents. No differences were found between grandmother-only and grandmother/grandfather 3-generation family households. Overall, the findings suggest there may be heterogeneity by race/ethnicity and nativity in the associations between 3-generation coresidence and school readiness. (author abstract)
Resource Type:
Reports & Papers
United States

Related resources include summaries, versions, measures (instruments), or other resources in which the current document plays a part. Research products funded by the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation are related to their project records.

- You May Also Like

These resources share similarities with the current selection.

The effects of an undergraduate programme of preschool teaching on preservice teachers' attitudes towards early mathematics education in Turkey: A longitudinal study

Reports & Papers

Early childhood educators working with children who have lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents: What does the literature tell us?

Literature Review

Developing leadership for early childhood professionals through oral inquiry: Strengthening equity through making particulars visible in dilemmas of practice

Reports & Papers

Improving QRISs through the use of existing data: A virtual pilot of the California QRIS

Reports & Papers
Release: 'v1.24.0' | Built: 2023-01-23 14:56:35 EST