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Parenting, childcare, and children's pre-kindergarten skills: Exploring moderation by race and ethnicity

This study evaluated whether parenting and childcare experience across infancy and toddlerhood were associated with children's reading, math, and social-behavioural skills prior to kindergarten entry. Analyses also examined whether race or ethnicity moderated associations. A representative sample of Hispanic, Black, and White children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort (N = 4550) was used. Parents' responsiveness in infancy and supportiveness in toddlerhood, as well as the home learning environment in toddlerhood, related to academic and social-emotional and behavioural readiness. Associations between certain parenting behaviours and child outcomes varied as a function of race. Additionally, compared to parent-only childcare, attendance in centre-based care at two years of age related to higher early math skills. Findings highlight the need for culturally specific early intervention to support parents in shaping early social-emotional skills in children, and suggest that exposure to centre-based childcare in the toddler years may benefit math readiness. (author abstract)
Resource Type:
Reports & Papers
United States

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