Texas A&M University will investigate the role of both positive and negative parenting techniques, as well as the role of parent characteristics (e.g., stress and distress), on early child externalizing behavior problems. Specifically, the study has two goals: (a) to examine the relations among both positive and negative parenting techniques, parent characteristics, and child behavior problems; and (b) to examine the contribution of both ethnicity and acculturation to the use of various parenting techniques and their influence on child behavior problems. Participants will include 300 primary caregivers from eight Head Start facilities in Texas and Mississippi. Parents and teachers will be surveyed in Spring and Fall 2006 semester of the school year. Results of the study will impact Head Start programs at the local classroom level, as well as the policy level. Results will assist with more precise early identification of at-risk families by Head Start staff, leading to: (a) better informed community referrals; (b) better understanding of the parental variables most influential on child behavior, which can be used to enhance parent training curricula, including those used by Head Start staff; (c) determining the benefits of parent involvement in Head Start programs; (d) consideration of the importance of ethnicity and acculturation on these relations to continue to foster a respectful and informed environment for Head Start families.