Child Care and Early Education Research Connections

Skip to main content

Home and preschool influences on early literacy and numeracy development in England, Estonia, and the United States


This study considered the influences of socioeconomic status (SES), home learning environment, and age of enrollment in early childhood education and care (ECEC) on early literacy and numeracy development of 5-year-olds in England (N = 2,577), Estonia (N = 2,110), and the United States (N = 2,234) by leveraging data from the International Early Learning and Child Well-being Study (conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in 2018). Structural equation modeling indicated that, in all three countries, SES was positively associated with earlier ECEC enrollment, emergent literacy and numeracy. Earlier ECEC enrollment was positively related to emergent literacy and numeracy in England. The home learning environment was positively related to emergent literacy in the United States and emergent numeracy in England and the United States. Overall, SES had a positive indirect effect on emergent literacy and numeracy through ECEC enrollment age in England. Findings are interpreted against country-specific ECEC policies. (author abstract)

Resource Type:
Reports & Papers
United States; England; Estonia
Release: 'v1.77.0' | Built: 2024-05-14 14:23:10 EDT