Utah State University will explore the influence of early environmental supports and other cognitive and social factors on literacy and reading comprehension. More specifically, the study seeks to answer the following questions: (a) What early environmental supports predict reading comprehension scores; (b) What early cognitive indicators in language, cognition, and emergent literacy predict reading comprehension scores; (c) Which early social indicators predict reading comprehension in second-graders; and (d) What combinations of early environmental and developmental factors predict later reading comprehension? Participants will include 120 second grade children from low-income families, who previously took part in the national Early Head Start study. Developmental data from the children at 10, 14, 18, 24, 36 months and in kindergarten will be used to investigate the impact of early environmental supports, and other cognitive and social factors on later reading comprehension. By incorporating longitudinal data with more recent data from standardized measures, interviews, and self-reports, researchers hope to provide a better understanding of the factors that influence literacy development from infancy through second grade.